abstractDesalination is commonly adopted nowadays to overcome the freshwater scarcity in some areas of the world if brackish water or salt water is available. Different kinds of technologies have been proposed in the last century. In this paper, the state of the mainstream solutions is reported, showing the current commercial technologies like reverse osmosis (RO), Multi-Stages Flash desalination (MSF) and Multi-Effect Distillation (MED), and the new frontiers of the research with the aim of exploiting renewable sources such as wind, solar and biomass energy. In these cases, seawater treatment plants are the same as traditional ones, with the only difference being that they use a renewable energy source. Thus, classifications are firstly introduced, considering the working principles, the main energy input required for the treatment, and the potential for coupling with renewable energy sources. Each technology is described in detail, showing how the process works and reporting some data on the state of development. Finally, a statistical analysis is given concerning the spread of the various technologies across the world and which of them are most exploited. In this section, an important energy and exergy analysis is also addressed to quantify energy losses.
Relation of the publication to technologies.
Issued publications that refer to the application of tool/technology to the case study/Living Lab.